Middle East & South Asia

Middle East & South Asia (8)

Hanoi-Haiphong Expressway, Vietnam

Written by Monday, 28 March 2016 06:08

The Hanoi-Haiphong Expressway is the first and the most modern expressway in the northern Vietnam, the easternmost country in South East Asia. The 105.5km-long, six-lane highway begins at the Belt Road 3 in Ha Noi, the capital city of Vietnam, runs through Hung Yen, Hai Duong, the two major provinces in northern Vietnam, and ends at Dinh Vu port in Hai Phong.

It connects the existing highways at six points, enhancing access to Dinh Vu port, the biggest sea port in the country. It enhances the connectivity of northern economic region, as well as increases its efficiency by boosting the socioeconomic development of the region.

"Vietnam Development Bank is funding the entire cost of the project, which is estimated to be approximately VND45.5tn ($2bn)."

The project is managed by the China Road and Bridge Corporation. Vietnam Infrastructure Development and Finance Investment Joint Stock Company (VIDIFI), a joint venture (JV) between Vinaconex, Vietnam Development Bank, Bank for Foreign Trade of Vietnam and the Saigon Investment Joint Stock company, owns and operates the expressway.

Hanoi-Haiphong expressway project details

Comprising a 22.7km-long stretch, the first section of the project was opened in May 2015. The section runs from the intersection with National Highway 10 to another intersection in Duong Kinh district.

Another 52km expressway section was opened in September 2015, bringing the total operating length of the expressway to 75km.

The motorway is 33m-wide and has a total of 54 bridges. It features green belt and fencing wall on both sides, while a 10m-wide roadside is used for technical corridor serving pipelines, fibre cables and noise immunity.

It is the first and only expressway in Vietnam, which is not surrounded by domestic buildings as both sides are landscaped with parks, green belt and technical works for its operation.

The motorway is designed for vehicles travelling up to a speed of 120km/h, while those designed for lesser speeds (less than 60km/h) are not allowed.

Project background

Located centrally in the northern region of the country, Hanoi, Hai Phong and Quang Ninh have become a strong economic triangle, determining the social and economic development of the area.

The new industrial zones along the region, especially along the Highway 5, have been the driving force for the development. The highway is the main axis road connecting Hanoi to Haiphong and is responsible to carry a big volume of goods and passengers.

A strong transport network was found necessary in order to leverage the opportunities in the area. To facilitate the same, Highway 5 has been upgraded from a dual-lane highway to four-to six-lane highway, according to the Road level 1 standard. However, it has been overloaded from the past few years due to the development of industrial zones and living groups along the highway.

The Hanoi-Haiphong motorway project was then included in the development strategy of Vietnam's communications and transport. The expressway network was designed to pass through the main economic regions in Northern Vietnam to expedite and support the development of the localities in the area and the neighbouring provinces.

The Vietnamese Government approved the pre-feasibility study report, including the route plan and investment scale, of the motorway in build-operate-transfer (BOT) form.

The building investment for the project was set up in 2004 and in 2007, the minister of communications and transportation announced Vietnam Development Bank as the investor for the project.

Contractors involved with the Hanoi-Haiphong expressway

The construction contract for the project was awarded to SK C&C, the system integration subsidiary of SK Group. The company imported Korea's cutting-edge traffic system for the project.

It also installed a robust monitoring system, which collects data from tollhouse systems, vehicle detecting machines, traffic scoreboards and closed-circuit TVs, and sends it to the central management office of the expressway, enabling real-time monitoring of traffic volume on the expressway.

Meinhardt International in association with Japan Engineering Consultants provided the construction supervision services. Hadicon was engaged in conducting survey and design works for three packages of the expressway for a total length of approximately 30km. Joton was the supplier of traffic paints for the project.

Financing

Vietnam Development Bank is funding the entire cost of the project, which is estimated to be approximately VND45.5t ($2bn). The loan is being provided to VIDIFI.

Xihoumen Bridge, China

Written by Thursday, 31 December 2015 10:23

With a span of 1,650m, Xihoumen Bridge is the longest spanning suspension bridge in China and the second longest in the world, after Japan's Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge.

The bridge was built as part of the Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project, which was launched by Sichuan Road and Bridge Co in 1999.

"The bridge design contract was awarded to China Communications Construction Company."

Located in Zhoushan Islands in China's Zhejiang province, Xihoumen Bridge is one of five bridges linking the city of Ningbo and the Zhoushan Archipelago, the largest offshore island group in China. The bridge was built by Zhejiang Government at a cost of 2.48bn yuan (about $363m).

Construction work began in 2005 and the main span of the bridge was completed in December 2007. The bridge was completed and opened to traffic on 25 December 2009.

Project

The Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project started in 1999. It includes construction of five bridges to link the Zhoushan Archipelago to the mainland.

Construction of three bridges has already been completed. The two tow bridges were built as part of the second phase.

Xihoumen Bridge is one of the two bridges built in the second phase. The other bridge is the 27km-long Jintang Bridge. Traffic started using the bridge when the main span was completed in December 2007.

The 5.3km-long bridge consists of a 2.6km main bridge and 2.7km side joint sections with a 1,650m central span. The total length of steel box girder is about 2,200m.

The bridge is stayed by 169 pre-formed parallel wire strands (PPWS) and eight back cables weighing 10,758t together. A total of 476 suspenders of different sizes were used.

The suspenders weigh 1,394t in total and include 452 pieces of 60mm each, eight pieces of 80mm each and 16 pieces of 88mm each.

Design

China Communications Construction Company designed Xihoumen Bridge, adopting a long span design. The bridge was designed as a two-span suspension bridge. The main bridge is of steel twin-box girder suspension.

The bridge was designed in accordance with four-lane express highway standards. It has a width of 24.5m and allows vehicles to travel at 80km/h.

The north end of the bridge is connected to Cezi Island and the south end is linked to Jintang Island. Mentou Hill and Shangxiong-ezui were selected as bridge foundation sites to decrease the main span of the bridge over the waterway. Laohu Hill was used as a pylon location.

The north side span is located over the water channel between Cezi Island and Laohu Hill and supported by a stiffening girder. The south side span is on land and supported by piers.

The middle ventilation was adopted for the stiffening girder according to the wind load requirements. A strong transverse connection was provided to ensure the transverse integrity of the stiffening girder.

The transverse connection of the box structure was provided at the hung point and an I-shaped beam was set between two transverse connecting boxes.

The main cables consist of 1,770MPa parallel wires. High-quality steel core wire ropes with a fixed spacing of 18m were used for hangers and 211.3m-high cable pylons were used in the bridge.

The main deck of the bridge is an orthotropic plate with a 14mm-thick top plate and a 10mm-thick bottom plate. It is stiffened with a U-shaped rib.

Contractors and suppliers

The bridge design contract was awarded to China Communications Construction Company. China Highway Planning and Design Institute (HPDI) Consultants was chosen as the design consultant. UK- based Dorman Long Technology (DLT) designed and supplied the deck erection gantries.

"The bridge was built as part of the Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project."

Site supervision for the operation and maintenance of the gantries was also provided by DLT. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted by northern European consulting group COWI.

Baosteel Group Corporation supplied 65,000t of steel products including wire rods, steel plates, steel coils, rebars and stranded wire. Shanghai Pujiang Cable Co (SPCC) supplied the main cables for the bridge in 2004. The DP-180 cantilever form-work system was supplied by Zulin Africa.

Xihoumen Bridge, China

Written by Thursday, 31 December 2015 10:23

With a span of 1,650m, Xihoumen Bridge is the longest spanning suspension bridge in China and the second longest in the world, after Japan's Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge.

The bridge was built as part of the Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project, which was launched by Sichuan Road and Bridge Co in 1999.

"The bridge design contract was awarded to China Communications Construction Company."

Located in Zhoushan Islands in China's Zhejiang province, Xihoumen Bridge is one of five bridges linking the city of Ningbo and the Zhoushan Archipelago, the largest offshore island group in China. The bridge was built by Zhejiang Government at a cost of 2.48bn yuan (about $363m).

Construction work began in 2005 and the main span of the bridge was completed in December 2007. The bridge was completed and opened to traffic on 25 December 2009.

Project

The Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project started in 1999. It includes construction of five bridges to link the Zhoushan Archipelago to the mainland.

Construction of three bridges has already been completed. The two tow bridges were built as part of the second phase.

Xihoumen Bridge is one of the two bridges built in the second phase. The other bridge is the 27km-long Jintang Bridge. Traffic started using the bridge when the main span was completed in December 2007.

The 5.3km-long bridge consists of a 2.6km main bridge and 2.7km side joint sections with a 1,650m central span. The total length of steel box girder is about 2,200m.

The bridge is stayed by 169 pre-formed parallel wire strands (PPWS) and eight back cables weighing 10,758t together. A total of 476 suspenders of different sizes were used.

The suspenders weigh 1,394t in total and include 452 pieces of 60mm each, eight pieces of 80mm each and 16 pieces of 88mm each.

Design

China Communications Construction Company designed Xihoumen Bridge, adopting a long span design. The bridge was designed as a two-span suspension bridge. The main bridge is of steel twin-box girder suspension.

The bridge was designed in accordance with four-lane express highway standards. It has a width of 24.5m and allows vehicles to travel at 80km/h.

The north end of the bridge is connected to Cezi Island and the south end is linked to Jintang Island. Mentou Hill and Shangxiong-ezui were selected as bridge foundation sites to decrease the main span of the bridge over the waterway. Laohu Hill was used as a pylon location.

The north side span is located over the water channel between Cezi Island and Laohu Hill and supported by a stiffening girder. The south side span is on land and supported by piers.

The middle ventilation was adopted for the stiffening girder according to the wind load requirements. A strong transverse connection was provided to ensure the transverse integrity of the stiffening girder.

The transverse connection of the box structure was provided at the hung point and an I-shaped beam was set between two transverse connecting boxes.

The main cables consist of 1,770MPa parallel wires. High-quality steel core wire ropes with a fixed spacing of 18m were used for hangers and 211.3m-high cable pylons were used in the bridge.

The main deck of the bridge is an orthotropic plate with a 14mm-thick top plate and a 10mm-thick bottom plate. It is stiffened with a U-shaped rib.

Contractors and suppliers

The bridge design contract was awarded to China Communications Construction Company. China Highway Planning and Design Institute (HPDI) Consultants was chosen as the design consultant. UK- based Dorman Long Technology (DLT) designed and supplied the deck erection gantries.

"The bridge was built as part of the Zhoushan Mainland and Islands Link Project."

Site supervision for the operation and maintenance of the gantries was also provided by DLT. Aerodynamic analysis was conducted by northern European consulting group COWI.

Baosteel Group Corporation supplied 65,000t of steel products including wire rods, steel plates, steel coils, rebars and stranded wire. Shanghai Pujiang Cable Co (SPCC) supplied the main cables for the bridge in 2004. The DP-180 cantilever form-work system was supplied by Zulin Africa.

Yamuna Expressway, Uttar Pradesh, India

Written by Thursday, 31 December 2015 10:19

The Yamuna Expressway is a 165.5km motorway in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). It connects the cities of Noida and Agra via Mathura along the Yamuna River. The expressway was officially inaugurated on 9 August 2012.

The Yamuna Expressway was previously known as the Taj Expressway as it connects Greater Noida - a proximal area to the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) - with the Taj Mahal in Agra. It was renamed in July 2008 by the Yamuna Expressway Industrial Development Authority (YEIDA), constituted by the state government.

The expressway reduces the travel time between Agra and Delhi by 100 minutes. The distance of 210km can now be travelled in approximately two hours. The project will relieve traffic congestion on the National Highway-91; on the Old Grand Trunk (GT) road between Delhi and Kanpur, and the cities of Palwal, Ballabgarh and Faridabad on the National Highway-2. It intends to provide uninterrupted movement of freight and passenger traffic for the towns and commercial centres on the east side of the Yamuna Expressway.

The project was originally estimated to cost approximately INR22.5bn, but has overrun due to a rise in construction costs and a delay in land acquisition. Construction began in December 2007. The total project cost of the Yamuna Expressway and land acquisition costs for real estate developments is approximately INR12,839bn.

Yamuna Expressway master plan

The Yamuna Expressway interconnects the NH-91 and NH-2 and will give impetus to urbanisation and industrialisation in the region.

The expressway is also designed to serve the upcoming regional infrastructural developments in Greater Noida and Noida regions. The developments include the proposed Taj economic zone, Taj International Airport hub and ribbon development on about 2,500ha including five integrated townships with commercial, institutional and residential developments.

The Yamuna Expressway is a 165.5km motorway in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh."

As per the master plan developed by YEIDA, the project was developed in three phases along the river. Phase I covered the 40km stretch from Greater Noida to the proposed airport in the town of Jewar, Gautam Buddha Nagar District, UP. Phase II stretches 20km from the proposed airport to an intermediate destination before Agra. Phase III extended the roadway by 105km further to Agra, via Mathura.

The expressway project

The Uttar Pradesh state government approved the construction of the Yamuna Expressway in 2001 and the tender process began in 2003. The 165.53km expressway project is a six-lane motorway, having a potential to be extended to eight lanes. The expressway is a dual carriageway with three lanes, 3.75m wide in both directions, with the potential to expand to four lanes.

The expressway includes a right-of-way strip of 100m. The pavement is of rigid concrete, instead of regular bitumen pavement - the only other concrete-paved motorway in India is the Mumbai-Pune Expressway.

The other allied structures of the project include six interchanges, seven toll plazas on the interchange loops and five main toll plazas. In addition to manual toll collection, the company also plans to use automated toll facilities with electronic tags installed in the user vehicles. It has 76 cart track underpasses/crossings and a major bridge and one rail-over-bridge. The project included the construction of 41 minor bridges and 183 culverts. A total of 13 service roads of about 168km were built for local commuters.

The expressway also has facilities such as rest areas with parking and shelters, motels and restaurants, fuel stations, automobile repair shops, pay phones, public conveniences and cold drinks kiosks along the route. It features landscaping and plantations for aesthetic design and safety.

"The Yamuna Expressway reduces the travel time between Agra and Delhi by 100 minutes."

Safety

The access-controlled expressway has barricades along the route. It has limited road crossings, about 50 fly-overs and 60 pedestrian crossing points. The expressway is also installed with CCTV cameras and SOS booths for ensuring safety. The speed limit on the road is 60km/h for heavy vehicles and 100km/h for cars.

Contractors

In February 2003, YEIDA awarded the build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract to Jaiprakash Industries, which later merged with Jaypee Cement (JCL).

JCL, now known as Jaiprakash Associates (JAL), is a flagship company of Jaypee Group, an infrastructural industrial conglomerate in India. JAL as concessionaire will collect the tolls during a concession period of 36 years.

In April 2007, Jaypee Group incorporated Jaypee Infratech (JIL), a special purpose vehicle for planning, investing, implementing, operating and maintaining the expressway. JIL is also working on the development of the expressway's related real estate projects.

LEA Associates South Asia Private (LASA), Intercontinental Consultants & Technocrats (ICT), Scott Wilson India (SW) and Consulting Engineering Services India (CES) worked as project management consultants.

In 2009, JAL awarded two contracts of INR4.33bn to Brahmaputra Infraproject for the construction of about 59km of the expressway. The scope of work included construction of major interchanges, minor bridges, earthen embankment, cart track and vehicular track underpasses.

In November 2011, Efkon was awarded a contract to supply a toll management system solution covering 129 toll lanes of the expressway.

Yangpu Bridge, Shanghai, China

Written by Thursday, 31 December 2015 10:12

Yangpu Bridge, Shanghai

Yangpu Bridge is an 8.3km-long (5.15 miles) bridge built over the Huangpu River. Located on the Ningguo Road in Yangpu district of Shanghai, China, it connects Pudong (east of Huangpu River) with Puxi (west of Huangpu River).

The bridge is the fourth largest cable-stayed bridge in the world with a span of 602m. By 2006, it had carried more than 5,000 vehicles an hour and over 100,000 a day.

Yangpu Bridge was completed in September 1993 and opened to traffic in October of the same late. The people of China treat it as the sister bridge to Nanpu due to the distance between the two being just 11km.

The unique design of the Yangpu Bridge, one of the leading tourist attractions in Shanghai, symbolises a rainbow across the Huangpu River.

Yangpu Bridge design

"The unique design of the Yangpu Bridge, one of the leading tourist attractions in Shanghai, symbolises a rainbow across the Huangpu River."

The Shanghai Municipal Engineering Design Institute, Shanghai Urban Construction College and Shanghai Urban Construction Design Institute together designed the bridge which uses six lanes of traffic, three in each direction, and resembles a huge dragon over the Huangpu River.

It is a steel concrete structure with double-towers and double-cable-stayed surfaces. The height of each upside down Y-shaped main tower is 223m, while each tower is joined with 32 pairs of cables on each side. There are a total of 256 cables in all with the longest measuring 330m. The main cross section of cables is made up of 313m-high tensile steel wires.

The main part of the bridge is 1,172m long and 30.35m wide. The distance between the two pylons is 602m (1,975ft), with the height of each pylon 223m (731.6ft).

With a span of 1,650m, Xihoumen Bridge is the longest spanning suspension bridge in China and the second longest in the world, after Japan's Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge.

Advanced technology was used for the construction of the bridge, which measures 48m in height from the river, both sides of which have 2m sidewalks for sightseeing.

The name of the bridge has been inscribed inside the main tower's triangle area. It is written by Dengxiaoping, general designer of the reform and opening up policy of China.

Yangpu Bridge construction

Construction of the bridge began on 29 April 1991 and took two years and five months to complete. It was built by Shanghai Huangpujiang Bridge Engineering Construction.

Yangpu Bridge financing

Shanghai Chengtou and Asian Development Bank had co-financed the Yongpu Bridge project on 19 February 1993. The Asian Development Bank was in contact with various banks for co-financing the project.

"Construction of the bridge began on 29 April 1991 and took two years and five months to complete."

The $259m bridge project was financed through $173.95m of foreign currency loans, $85.5m of local costs and $74m of commercial co-finance. The commercial co-financing was for a period of 15 years.

Yangpu Bridge safety

The diamond-shaped towers and cable panels make the bridge structure stronger, while safety and reliability measures were verified by full scale model testing. The bridge's seismic design used a two-level approach; in order to avoid the vulnerability of seismic approach the side piers were supported with steel tie rods between the side piers and deck.

Yangtze River Tunnels, China

Written by Thursday, 31 December 2015 10:08

The first tunnel of the Chiangjiang under-river tunnel project to cross the Yangtze River in China was completed in 2008. The tunnel is the first of a twin-tunnel complex opened in October 2009, ahead of the World Expro in Shanghai.

Each of the tunnels has three lanes of traffic and are 7.47km long, tunnelled at depths of 65m under the river bed. They have two levels with three-lane traffic above and services and safety facilities below with additional space for a metro. The tunnels were constructed by the Shanghai Changjiang Tunnel & Bridge Construction and the Chinese partner Shanghai Tunnel Engineering (STEC).

The tunnelling was carried out using one of the largest S-317 Mixshield tunnel boring machines (TBM) ever built. The TBM for the first tunnel, one of two for the project, has a diameter of 15.43m, total length of 135m and a total weight of 2,300t. It was constructed by Herrenknecht after a contract awarded in spring 2005 and was handed over to begin operations at the end of April 2006. The TBM was constructed in four months at a site in Shanghai Wuhaogou (Pudong), 6km from the tunnelling site.

The construction of the second identical TBM (S-318) for the second tunnel was started in the middle of 2006. The main drives, providing cutterhead power of 3,500kW and weighing 170t each, were fabricated in Germany and transported to Shanghai by ship. The tunnel project will employ 1,500 construction workers and is expected to cost in excess of $1.5bn.

The project goal

Shanghai is a large industrial city and is short of space to accommodate the large number of workers resident in the city. The Chinese want to create one of their first eco cities in the middle of the Yangtze River Delta.

"The new city will incorporate every possible green technology to save energy and water."

The new city, called Dongtan, has been designed by Arup and is being developed by the Shanghai Development Company. The initial phases are expected to be completed by 2010.

The new city will incorporate every possible green technology to save energy and water. There will be waste and heat recycling, water treatment and communal heating/hot water systems. The amount of car traffic will be carefully controlled and limited to the periphery of the city.

The new city will be constructed on the island of Chongming which will be connected to the Changxing river island (600,000 residents) with a bridge. In turn, Changxing Island will be connected to the Shanghai mainland at Pudong by the two new 7.47km tunnels.

Start of tunnelling

"The tunnel project employed 1,500 construction workers and is expected to cost in excess of $1.5bn."

The tunnelling with the S-317 was started in a 26m-deep launch tunnel on 6 September 2006 from Shanghai and breakthrough to the island was finished in September 2008.

The S-318 TBM began parallel tunnelling on 8 December 2006, with a distance between tunnel centre lines of 23m, and was completed in 2009.

The Mixshield machines, working on hydroshield principle, were able to withstand water pressures of 6.5bar and excavated a mixture of sand, clay, broken rock and groundwater (206,033kN thrust and 39,945kNm torque).

The technology allows tools on the cutting wheel to be changed from within the shield at atmospheric pressure, with six cutting wheel arms accessible. These machines prevented hazardous diving operations.

The two machines installed a total of 7,500 lining segment rings for the two tunnels; each of the rings is made up of 11 segments, weighing up to 16t. The final interior diameter was 13.7m. The two tunnels required the disposal of 2.7 million cubic metres of earth by the time they were completed. 

Al Khalij Commercial Bank will fund the Al Rayyan Road project in Doha, after the $274m contract has been awarded to a joint venture between Six Construct Qatar and Boom Construction Company.

 

The funding is expected to help the contractors with bonding and funding requirement for the project.

 

Al Rayyan Road construction project includes the construction and development of Al Rayyan Road (Project 7) stretching from west of the New Rayyan roundabout to east of the BaniHajer roundabout.

 

The contact also involves the renovation of associated side roads and service roads along the stretch.

 

It is a part of an overall infrastructural improvement plan to connect south of Doha with the north, and east Doha with the west.

 

The Al Rayyan Road project has been awarded by the Qatar based Public Works Authority (Ashghal) under the Expressway and Local Areas Programmes.

 

Al Khaliji Group CEO Fahad Al Khalifa said: "Being involved in this key project, enhancing the country's future transportation landscape with the collaboration of well-known local and international contractors, comes as part of Al Khaliji's innovative mid-term strategy"

 

"We will continue to broaden our future projects, focusing on infrastructure financing leading up to the 2022 World Cup and the 2030 National Vision."

Doha Expressway, Qatar

Written by Tuesday, 04 March 2014 08:07

The Doha Expressway is a significant infrastructure project being carried out in Doha, Qatar. It will connect the south of Doha with the north, and the east with the west. Estimated at QR15bn, the project construction began in late 2007 and is expected to be completed in 2015.